Demand is increasing. Production is almost completely dominated by China. Recycling margins are inadequate. This is the current context of the market of Rare Earth Elements (REE) or “technology metals” which are essential for a wide range of applications, from smartphones, to microphones, electric and hybrid vehicles, headphones, earphones and X-ray machines, to name just a few. However, while the demand for Rare Earth Elements, and their price, is subject to significant fluctuations, reuse is virtually impossible because of their low return and the high costs of the recovery process.  REE are considered such due to their essential function as the vitamins of modern industry. Over the past ten years, demand has tripled, reaching 125,000 tonnes in 2015. The USA, Japan, K...