The proposal for a waste directive presented at the commission on 2nd July 2014,(1) in the framework of a packet of measures aimed at promoting circular economy, is the first important regulatory step of the strategy for resource efficiency, already contained in the Europe 2020 agenda for an intelligent, sustainable and inclusive growth.  This proposal is the result of a wide consultation with stakeholders and it also complies with the legal obligation of re-examining the objectives (recovery and recycling) contained in directives on waste, landfills and packaging.  Although formally in continuity with the European regulatory tradition on waste and with the “communitarian hierarchy”, the proposal also presents various innovative aspects.  This change is visible in th...