The task is daunting considering the pressing need to provide a growing population of 1.3 billion with a greater standard of living, while income disparities have reached a thirty-year record peak.(2) Resources may simply not suffice and, in certain areas, the environmental carrying capacity is visibly being stretched (air and water pollution). Not surprisingly, the notion of circular economy – which remains strongly rooted in China’s rural practices – appears today as an essential instrument to achieve future quality development. However, in practice, the new effort is driven by the desire to secure resources rather than by environmental concerns. So until May 2010, when China’s National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of Finance unveiled a 5-year p...