Looking at the current state of the bio-based economy in Europe, one has to draw a mixed conclusion. Research and technology development continue to advance and some fields, like fine chemicals and cellulose fibres, are doing quite well. However, actual implementation, especially in the chemical and plastics industries, is proving to be difficult, in particular because a clear political commitment is missing. To replace fossil carbon in the entire petrochemical industry a new approach is needed. The bio-based economy must become part of an overarching renewable carbon strategy, where it will be a crucial pillar.   What is your general impression of the current state of the European bio-based economy? “Very mixed. Research and development are running at full speed, an...