While fossil fuels for energy production have been used for the past 250 years, their utilization to generate new materials and a plethora of plastics dates back to no more than a century ago. However, after a rapid growth, in the next decades the employment of hydrocarbons will probably slow down and fall, mainly due to the constraints brought about by climate change. In some fields, their central role is already deteriorating. As for electricity generation, in many countries renewable sources are rapidly expanding. Their potential is colossal, and they are to meet humankind’s electricity demand in an efficient energy use scenario.  As regards “renewable matter” – the biomaterials that have a market thanks to their characteristics and their environmental added val...