In recent years the concept of Circular Economy has received growing attention, both in the worlds of science and of policy making. Some scholars and practitioners present it as a novelty, but we have to acknowledge that it builds on the legacy of predecessors, like waste recycling and separation, industrial ecology, eco-industrial parks and industrial symbiosis. Various concepts go back to the 1980’s, such as the concepts of waste hierarchies (3R’s, 4R’s etc.) and cascading. The 3R’s concept has become commonplace in many national waste regulations all over the world. At best, we can frame the renewed attention as Circular Economy 3.0. By doing so, questions arise concerning what it takes from versions 1.0 and 2.0 and what is new. The “action imperatives” suggested by...