Abundance of non-food biomass, soil and vast availability of natural resources, a biodiversity almost unmatched anywhere else in the world and a biotechnological and chemical industry focused on innovation, with the biofuel sector as the nation’s spearhead. These are the main characteristics of Brazil’s bioeconomy, making the South American country one of the world’s leading actors in such metasector. Despite the lack of an integrated strategy on the bioeconomy, since the early 70s, when it was necessary to react to the oil shock, Brazil has introduced a set of policies promoting the advent of bioethanol and, more recently, the conservation and sustainable use of its biodiversity for economic purposes.   The role of bioethanol Brazil boasts over 400 sugarcane factori...